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Direct To Home (DTH) Service Provider In Europe.

DTH Service Providers in Europe
People tend to incline for entertainment doing anything they find fit for fun including fishing, traveling, reading books, web surfing, gossiping, cycling, writing, watching television and many more. And watching television is fun as well as recreational for most of the people of almost all the ages.  However, when we find ourselves in a mood to watch TV program, we also find ourselves in the need of a cable network or satellite tv service. For doing so, we can take help of direct-to-home service which is called DTH – a digital satellite television viewing services for subscribers directly through satellite transmission. That is why, we will now learn about direct-to-home service providers in entire Europe. Since above the earth, there are lot of satellites stationed at six key positions in orbit and DTH can make your day at home with variety of channels for fun and entertainment.      
In Europe, there seems to be number of DTH service providers available in the market from which you will select your preferable one which obviously meets your requirements of tv channels. We will simple begin with Canal Digital – a widely known DTH service provider for quality viewers. Established in 1997, Canal Digital goes ahead with the purpose of distributing Television programs. This remains as primary ambition for Canal Digital along with performing huge amount of activities related to broadcast and entertainment. To name few milestones of Canal Digital, it became pure subsidiary of Telenor in 2002, first Nordic Content provider to offer HDTV in 2005, Canal Digital Kabel-TV AS(Norway) becomes a part of Telenor Norway in 2010, AS is re-established fully focusing on DTH in the Nordics in 2011 and more. Canal Digital aims to reach to the customers with rich content with over 130 TV channels from where you can pick your own.  And the best thing about Canal Digital is that around 900 thousand households make their first choice to pick Canal Digital as their entertainment platform across the Nordics.

The leading DTH service provider is not only Canal Digital, the Sky is rocking high as well with endless entertainment programs and broadband. From Television to Mobile Phone, Sky is at your doorstep to entertain you with your best choice. Sky allows to explore Sky Corporate, Sky for Business, Sky Communal TV, and work for Sky. Getting bored home or anywhere in your country, just pop in Sky and enjoy the ultimate entertainment with variety of channels including Sky 1, Sky Living, Sky Atlantic, Sky Arts, Sky Cinema, Sky Sports, and Sky news as well. You will never be able to miss anything from any channel with Sky as it offers great advantage of highlighting your preferred chunks or programs or shows or sports. This is amazing for the sports lover as you can pick and choose any dedicated channels from premier league to F1 including football, cricket and golf. The opportunity of entertainment is simply enormous and quite convenient with Sky.      

Number of Choices
However, these two direct-to-home service providers are not only ruling the entire Europe, but as we will get to know about other DTH service providers and countries as well.

1. Digit-Al 

1. Sky Osterreich

1. Bulsatcom

1. Digi TV

1. Canal Digital

1. CanalSat

1. CanalDigital 

1. Sky Deutschland

1. Digi TV
2. Magyar Telekom

 1. Sky
2. Saorsat

1. Sky Italia

1. TéléSAT Luxembourg

1. CanalDigitaal
2. UPC Direct 

1. Canal Digital

1. Cyfrowy Polsat
1. ZON TV Cabo

1. Orange TV
2. RCS & RDS
3. Focus Sat

1. NTV Plus
2. Tricolor TV

1. Digi TV
2. TotalTV 

1. Digi TV

1. Movistar+

1. Canal Digital

1. Digiturk

United Kingdom
1. Sky
2. Freesat

1. Xtra TV

Overall, DTH service Providers in entire Europe are extensive with endless choices to make. Out of so many, Canal Digital and Sky can be convenient as well as full of entertainment. And the rest of the DTH service providers are best based in country and specific zones. At the end, the Tv shows, programs, sports, live channels are pretty easily accessible from every single DTH Service provider.            

How to configure encoder for satellite TV signal transmission.

Encoder Configuration

Encoding  is an essential part for satellite communication. For that reason broadcast engineers need to know how to configure the encoder properly. There are a number of encoder brand in the market. Most of them have the almost same parameter to configure. So the engineers have to put some value of the parameter to the encoder to encode signal. It depends on the demand and criteria of the TV channel owner and the signal. Some of the most important and common parameter (with dummy value) are as follows.   

1) Program name: XYZ TV
2) Service ID: 101
3) Video Format: PAL/ NTSC/ SECAM
4) Video Resulation: 720*576, 1920*1080
5) Video Bit Rate Mod: CBR/ VBR
6) Video Bit Rate (kbps): 4000
7) Audio Bit Rate (kbps): 192
8) Brightness: 50
9) Contrast: 50
10) Saturation: 50
11) Hue: 50
12) Video Encode Mode: MPEG-2
13) Audio Encode Mode: MPEG-2

That parameters define the characteristic of the up-link / transmitting signal. After encoding the signal, it goes into the modulator. Then the signal is modulated for the long distance transmission. After that, the modulated signal is amplified by SSPA or HPA to increase the amplitude of the signals. Then finally it transmitted through the web guide to the satellite.  

What is the difference between symbol rate and bit rate?

A symbol can carry multiple bits (and usually does). So BPSK/BFSK has a symbol of 2 states and the bit rate is the same as the symbol. QPSK has 4 symbol states and each symbol can carry 2 bits. 8PSK has eight symbol states and each symbol can carry 3 bits. 16QAM has 16 symbol states and each symbol can carry 4 bits. I'm sure you get the drift. 

Terminology: EIRP, G/T, Input Back-Off, Output Back-Off

EIRP: Used to indicate the power transmitted from an antenna. EIRP=Power +Antenna Gain, Both EIRP and Power is expressed in dBW and Gain in dBi.

G/T: It is the figure of merit for an earth station and is expressed as dB/K (dB per K).
G/T= Antenna Gain-10*Log (System Noise Temperature) The higher the better-G/T can be raised by using a higher gain antenna or a lower temperature LNA. The earth station G/T determines the received carrier to noise ration. Increasing station G/T will increase the C/N of the received carrier.

Input Back-Off (IPBO): The level of a signal at the input of an amplifier relative to that level at the input that would result in the maximum possible output level. For example, if an input level of -20dBm causes max output and the actual input level is -25dBm, the IPBO is 5dB. Both IPBO and OPBO are commonly used to determine the operating levels in a satellite transponder TWTA.

Output Back-Off (OPBO) The level of a signal at the output of an amplifier relative to the maximum possible output level. For example, if a maximum output level is +40dBm and the measured output level is +34dBm, the OPBO is 6dB. 

Terminology: Bandwidth, LNA Noise Temperature, Saturation Flux Density and Polarization.

Bandwidth is another fundamental antenna parameter. Bandwidth describes the range of frequencies over which the antenna can properly radiate or receive energy. Often, the desired bandwidth is one of the determining parameters used to decide upon an antenna. For instance, many antenna types have very narrow bandwidths and cannot be used for wideband operation.

Bandwidth is typically quoted in terms of VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio, and sounds very complicated. But it is simply a measure of how much power is reflected from an antenna. ) . For instance, an antenna may be described as operating at 100-400 MHz with a VSWR<1.5. This statement implies that the reflection coefficient is less than 0.2 across the quoted frequency range. Hence, of the power delivered to the antenna, only 4% of the power is reflected back to the transmitter. Alternatively, the return lossS11=20*log10(0.2)=-13.98 dB.

Note that the above does not imply that 96% of the power delivered to the antenna is transmitted in the form of EM radiation; losses must still be taken into account. 

LNA Noise Temperature: It is the measure of the amount of noise generated by the LNA. It is measured in Kelvin-the lower the better. Typical performance can be achieved for 30K to 70K. LNA noise performance is sometimes specified in terms of Noise Figure which is measured in dB.

NF=10*Log (1+T/290), NF in dB, T in Kelvins. 

Saturation Flux Density: Flux density is a measure of signal strength at a point in space and is measured in Watts/meter2 or dBW/meter2. It is usually applied to signals received at a satellite.

Polarisation: The polarisation of an RF wave in space is defined by the orientation of the electric vector (E) of the wave. The polarisation of an RF wave is used in satellite systems to separate two signals at the same frequency and allows frequency reuse in satellite systems. There are circular and linear polarizations and under each there are horizontal and vertical.