A symbol can carry multiple bits (and usually does). So BPSK/BFSK has a symbol of 2 states and the bit rate is the same as the symbol. QPSK has 4 symbol states and each symbol can carry 2 bits. 8PSK has eight symbol states and each symbol can carry 3 bits. 16QAM has 16 symbol states and each symbol can carry 4 bits. I'm sure you get the drift.

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